A Data-Driven Approach to Lightweight DVFS-Aware Counter-based Power Modeling for Heterogeneous Platforms
Mazzola, S., Benz, T., Forsberg, B., Benini, L. (2022). A Data-Driven Approach to Lightweight DVFS-Aware Counter-Based Power Modeling for Heterogeneous Platforms. In: Orailoglu, A., Reichenbach, M., Jung, M. (eds) Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation. SAMOS 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13511. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15074-6_22
Computing systems have shifted towards highly parallel and heterogeneous architectures to tackle the challenges imposed by limited power budgets. These architectures must be supported by novel power management paradigms addressing the increasing design size, parallelism, and heterogeneity while ensuring high accuracy and low overhead. In this work, we propose a systematic, automated, and architecture-agnostic approach to accurate and lightweight DVFS-aware statistical power modeling of the CPU and GPU sub-systems of a heterogeneous platform, driven by the sub-systems’ local performance monitoring counters (PMCs). Counter selection is guided by a generally applicable statistical method that identifies the minimal subsets of counters robustly correlating to power dissipation. Based on the selected counters, we train a set of lightweight, linear models characterizing each sub-system over a range of frequencies. Such models compose a lookup-table-based system-level model that efficiently captures the non-linearity of power consumption, showing desirable responsiveness and decomposability. We validate the system-level model on real hardware by measuring the total energy consumption of an NVIDIA Jetson AGX Xavier platform over a set of benchmarks. The resulting average estimation error is 1.3%, with a maximum of 3.1%. Furthermore, the model shows a maximum evaluation runtime of 500 ns, thus implying a negligible impact on system utilization and applicability to online dynamic power management (DPM).